Gordon, Sanford C., and Gregory A. Huber. “The Effect of Electoral Competitiveness on Incumbent Behavior,” 2 Quarterly Journal of Political Science 107 (2007).

December 20, 2011

This empirical study of Kansas trial judges—some of whom are chosen by competitive partisan elections and some of whom are chosen by noncompetitive retention elections—concludes that electoral competitiveness motivates trial judges to sentence criminal offenders more harshly.

  • Judicial Election

    Judges are elected by popular vote.
  • Democratic Appointment

    Judges are appointed directly by a democratic body, or appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of some democratic body.