Huber, Gregory A., and Sanford C. Gordon. “Accountability and Coercion: Is Justice Blind When It Runs for Office?” 48 American Journal of Political Science 247 (2004). (JStor)

December 20, 2011

This empirical study analyzes sentencing data from 22,095 Pennsylvania criminal cases in the 1990s, concluding that the judicial election process leads judges to become more punitive as the election season approaches.

  • Judicial Election

    Judges are elected by popular vote.
  • Democratic Appointment

    Judges are appointed directly by a democratic body, or appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of some democratic body.