Aspin, Larry, William K. Hall, Jean Bax, and Celeste Montoya. “Thirty Years of Judicial Retention Elections: An Update,” 37 The Social Science Journal 1 (2000). (accessmylibrary)

December 20, 2011

This article updates prior reports on the empirical patterns and trends in judicial retention elections. The 3,912 elections encompass both major trial court and appellate court elections in ten states for the period from 1964 through 1994. Reported trends include declines in the affirmative vote, rolloff, and voter differentiation among individual judges.

  • Judicial Election

    Judges are elected by popular vote.
  • Democratic Appointment

    Judges are appointed directly by a democratic body, or appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of some democratic body.