Bonneau, Chris W. “Electoral Verdicts: Incumbent Defeats in State Supreme Court Elections,” 33 American Politics Research 818 (2005). (SSRN)

December 20, 2011

This article examines the determinants of electoral defeat for all incumbent state Supreme Court justices who ran for reelection from 1990–2000 and concludes that the likelihood of an incumbent’s defeat is based on candidate characteristics, the state and electoral context, and institutional arrangements.

  • Judicial Election

    Judges are elected by popular vote.
  • Democratic Appointment

    Judges are appointed directly by a democratic body, or appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of some democratic body.