Bratton, Kathleen A., and Rorie L. Spill. “Existing Diversity and Judicial Selection: The Role of the Appointment Method in Establishing Gender Diversity in State Supreme Courts,” 83 Social Science Quarterly 504 (2002).

December 20, 2011

This empirical study uses logistic regression analysis to show that, while appointment systems are more likely to create gender diversity on state courts, this effect operates primarily to diversify all-male courts.

  • Judicial Election

    Judges are elected by popular vote.
  • Democratic Appointment

    Judges are appointed directly by a democratic body, or appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of some democratic body.