Dubois, Philip L. “Penny for Your Thoughts? Campaign Spending in California Trial Court Elections, 1976-1982,” 36 Western Political Quarterly 265 (1986).

December 20, 2011

This empirical study of judicial campaign expenditures in nonpartisanCaliforniatrial California trial court elections from 1976 to 1982 concludes that when viewed from the systemic level, judicial campaign costs are neither extraordinarily high nor rapidly increasing, and that as compared to expenditures for other political campagins, the costs are insignificant.

  • Judicial Election

    Judges are elected by popular vote.
  • Democratic Appointment

    Judges are appointed directly by a democratic body, or appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of some democratic body.