Hall, Melinda Gann. “Justices as Representatives: Elections and Judicial Politics in the American States,” 23 American Politics Quarterly 4, 485 (1995). (Sage)

December 20, 2011

This empirical study uses death penalty votes in state supreme courts to show that personal as well as policy considerations affect the goals of judicial actors and that the pursuit of these goals is furthered or hindered by different types of institutional arrangements.

  • Judicial Election

    Judges are elected by popular vote.
  • Democratic Appointment

    Judges are appointed directly by a democratic body, or appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of some democratic body.