Hall, Melinda Gann. “Voluntary Retirements from State Supreme Courts: Assessing Democratic Pressures to Relinquish the Bench,” 63 Journal of Politics 4, 1112 (2001). (JStor)

December 20, 2011

This article presents findings that suggest that while partisan and retention elections promote strategic retirement by state supreme court justices, nonpartisan elections do not.

  • Judicial Election

    Judges are elected by popular vote.
  • Democratic Appointment

    Judges are appointed directly by a democratic body, or appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of some democratic body.