Hurwitz, Mark S., and Drew Noble Lanier. “Explaining Judicial Diversity: The Differential Ability of Women and Minorities to Attain Seats on State Supreme and Appellate Courts,” 3 State Politics and Policy Quarterly 329 (2003). (Sage)

December 20, 2011

This article examines judges on all state supreme and intermediate appellate courts in 1985 and 1999 and concludes that the ability of women and minorities to attain a place in the judiciary is influenced by a combination of factors dependent upon time and the level of the court.

  • Judicial Election

    Judges are elected by popular vote.
  • Democratic Appointment

    Judges are appointed directly by a democratic body, or appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of some democratic body.