Shepherd, Joanna M. “Money, Politics, and Impartial Justice,” 58 Duke L. J. 623 (2009).

December 20, 2011

This article presents empirical evidence that elected state supreme court justices are sensitive to voter and contributor preference when making rulings and suggests possible reforms for restoring judicial independence.

  • Judicial Election

    Judges are elected by popular vote.
  • Democratic Appointment

    Judges are appointed directly by a democratic body, or appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of some democratic body.