Squire, Peverill., and Eric R.A.N. Smith. “The Effect of Partisan Information on Voters in Nonpartisan Elections,” 50 Journal of Politics 169 (1988).

December 20, 2011

This empirical study analyzes data from a 1982 California poll survey on state supreme court confirmation elections and concludes that voters use partisan information to structure their voting decisions during nonpartisan judicial elections.

  • Judicial Election

    Judges are elected by popular vote.
  • Democratic Appointment

    Judges are appointed directly by a democratic body, or appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of some democratic body.