Streb, Matthew J., and Brian Frederick. “Conditions for Competition in Low-Information Judicial Elections,” 62 Political Research Quarterly 523 (2009).

December 20, 2011

This empirical study analyzes all intermediate appellate court elections involving incumbents from 2000–2007, using data to estimate models of challenger entry and incumbent success once challenged and discussing similarities and differences between these findings and the results of studies of higher-visibility elections.

  • Judicial Election

    Judges are elected by popular vote.
  • Democratic Appointment

    Judges are appointed directly by a democratic body, or appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of some democratic body.