Streb, Matthew J., Brian Frederick, and Casey LaFrance. “Contestation, Competition, and the Potential for Accountability in Intermediate Appellate Court Elections,” 91 Judicature 70 (2007).

December 20, 2011

This empirical study analyzes 942 intermediate appellate court (IAC) elections held from 2000–2006, finding that while IAC judges are rarely challenged, challengers often prove difficult opponents and incumbents do lose in both partisan and nonpartisan elections.

  • Judicial Election

    Judges are elected by popular vote.
  • Democratic Appointment

    Judges are appointed directly by a democratic body, or appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of some democratic body.